Thursday, 7 September 2017

Important - Please help improve the Blog!

Seeking your input please!  The Prairie Pest Monitoring Network's BLOG has been active for 2 years so completing a CONFIDENTIAL 6-minute survey will help us learn more about who uses it, what information is accessed, and how to continue to improve it next field season.  

The survey is being conducted by Synthesis Agri-Food Network who has been contracted by Western Grains Research Foundation.  For more information concerning the survey of the Blog, please contact Karen Lewis


Friday, 25 August 2017

Weekly Update (Aug 24, 2017; Wk 17) - Good luck with harvest! Otani, Giffen, Svendsen, Olfert

Welcome to the final Weekly Update of the 2017 growing season!

We wish everyone 'Good Luck' with the rest of the growing season and thank the many people who have been busy monitoring in fields!  The provincial entomologists, their many staff and cooperators, plus our AAFC Staff are all thanked for their ongoing efforts!  Watch the Blog for the annual risk and forecast maps in January and the Weekly Updates will be back in 2018.

Please access the Weekly Update for August 24, 2017 (Week 17), as either a series of Posts  or a downloadable PDF




Questions or problems accessing the contents of this Weekly Update?  Please e-mail either Dr. Owen Olfert or Jennifer Otani.  Past “Weekly Updates” can be accessed on our Weekly Update page.

Subscribe to the Blog by following these three steps!

Important - Help improve the Blog!

Seeking your input please!  The Prairie Pest Monitoring Network's BLOG has been active for 2 years so completing a CONFIDENTIAL 6-minute survey will help us learn more about who uses it, what information is accessed, and how to continue to improve it next field season.  

The survey is being conducted by Synthesis Agri-Food Network who has been contracted by Western Grains Research Foundation.  For more information concerning the survey of the Blog, please contact Karen Lewis

Weekly Update (Aug 24, 2017; Wk 17) - Weather Synopsis

Weather synopsis – Temperature - Crops continue to mature and some fields have been harvested across the prairies.  The map below reflects the number of days above 25°C (Fig. 1) while the next map reflects the number of days above 30°C (Fig. 2).
Figure 1. Number of days above 25°C.
Figure 2. Number of days above 30°C.

The map below reflects the highest temperatures across the prairies the past seven days (Fig. 3) while the lowest temperatures the past seven days reveals some cool nights in some areas (Fig. 4).
Figure 3.  Highest temperatures the past seven days (August  15-21, 2017) across
the Canadian prairies.
Figure 4. Lowest temperatures the past seven days (August  15-21, 2017) across
the Canadian prairies.

Precipitation - Seven-day rainfall accumulations were greatest in central Alberta into Saskatchewan but also in eastern Saskatchewan and into Manitoba (Fig. 5). 

Figure 5. Accumulated precipitation the past seven days (August 15-21, 2017).


The accumulated precipitation for the growing season (Fig. 6) continues to reflect dryer growing conditions and dryer than normal for most of the prairies (Fig. 7). 
Figure 6. Accumulated precipitation for the growing season (April 1-21, 2017).
Figure 7. Percent of average precipitation for the growing season (April 1-August 21, 2017).


The growing degree day map (GDD) (Base 10ºC, March 1 – August 20, 2017) is below:


The growing degree day map (GDD) (Base 5ºC, March 1 – August 20, 2017) is below:





The maps above are all produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.  Growers may wish to bookmark the AAFC Drought Watch Maps for the growing season.

Weekly Update (Aug 24, 2017; Wk 17) - Wheat surveying (post-harvest)

Wheat surveying  As wheat is harvested, monitoring can begin for two wheat pests including wheat midge and wheat stem sawfly.  As soon as the combine passes through, in-field monitoring can commence with:
● Soil core sampling is used to assess the densities of wheat midge cocoons set to overwinter, PLUS
● The number of cut stems can be counted to determine the density of wheat stem sawfly.

By January, forecast and risk maps summarizing surveying efforts for the above pests will be available (e.g., check the Risk Map Page).

More information about these pests can be found by accessing the pages from the new "Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and Field Guide".  View ONLY the Wheat midge pages or ONLY the Wheat stem sawfly pages.  Remember the entire guide is available as a free downloadable document as both an English-enhanced or French-enhanced version.

Information related to wheat midge biology and monitoring can be accessed by linking to your provincial fact sheet (Saskatchewan Agriculture or Alberta Agriculture & Forestry) or the PPMN protocol

Information related to wheat stem sawfly is posted by Alberta Agriculture & ForestrySaskatchewan AgricultureManitoba Agriculture, or the PPMN

Weekly Update (August 24, 2017; Wk 17) - Stored Product Pests

The Canadian Grain Commission's website has an online key to stored product pests.  Growers managing grain storage can find an online identification tool for stored product pests (e.g., Rusty grain beetleRed flour beetleConfused flour beetleSaw-toothed grain beetle, and more).  The online tool features excellent diagnostic photos.  A screen shot of the webpage is included below for reference.


Weekly Update (Aug 24, 2017; Wk 17) - Provincial Insect Pest Reports

Provincial entomologists provide insect pest updates throughout the growing season so we have attempted to link to their most recent information: 

● Manitoba's Insect and Disease Update for 2017 is prepared by John Gavloski and Pratisara Bajracharya and read Issue #13 (posted August 16, 2017) noting soybean aphids as field near the R6 stage and high levels of bertha armyworm larvae from some fields in western Manitoba.

● Saskatchewan's Crop Production News - 2017 - Issue #6 includes an overview of late-season insect pests (bertha armyworm, diamondback moth, thistle caterpillar, soybean aphid, cabbage seedpod weevil, pea leaf weevil emerging flea beetles and grasshopper surveying) and Pre-Harvest Intervals (PHI) as well as important monitoring information for bins.

● Watch for Alberta Agriculture and Forestry's Call of the Land and access the most recent Insect Update (August 24, 2017) provided by Scott Meers. That report describes wheat stem sawfly surveying underway that scouts for cut stems to assess risk for 2018, white fluff balls at the top of canola that are actually parasitoid puparia or soon-to-be beneficial wasps that attack then emerge from a lepidopteran host, and the emergence of new-season red turnip beetles that will overwinter this fall.

Weekly Update (Aug 17, 2017; Wk 16) - Crop reports

Across the Canadian prairies, crop reports are produced by:
• Manitoba Agriculture, Rural Development (August 21, 2017)
• Saskatchewan Agriculture Crop Report (August 15-21, 2017)
• Alberta Agriculture and Forestry Crop Report (August 18, 2017)

Additionally:
• The USDA Crop Progress Report is available online but here is a PDF copy of the report for August 21, 2017.

Weekly Update (August 24, 2017; Wk 17) - Harvest Sample Program

The Canadian Grain Commission is ready and willing to grade grain samples harvested in 2017.  Samples are accepted up to November but send samples as soon a harvest is complete.

This is a FREE opportunity for growers to gain unofficial insight into the quality of their grain and to obtain valuable dockage information and details associated with damage or quality issues.  The data collected also helps Canada market its grain to the world!

More information on the Harvest Sample Program is available at the Canadian Grain Commission’s website where growers can register online to receive a kit to submit their grain.  

In exchange for your samples, the CGC assesses and provides the following unofficial results FOR FREE:
  • dockage assessment on canola
  • unofficial grade
  • protein content on barley, beans, chick peas, lentils, oats, peas and wheat
  • oil, protein and chlorophyll content for canola
  • oil and protein content and iodine value for flaxseed
  • oil and protein for mustard seed and soybeans
Many producers find having both grade and quality information on their samples before delivering their grain to be helpful.

Weekly Update (Aug 24, 2017; Wk 17) - West Nile Virus and Culex tarsalis

West Nile Virus Risk –  The regions most advanced in degree-day accumulations for Culex tarsalis, the vector for West Nile Virus, are shown in the map below.  As of August 20, 2017areas highlighted in red on the map below have accumulated sufficient heat for C. tarsalis to fly.  Culex tarsalis are also flying in areas highlighted in red, pink or mauve so wear your DEET to stay protected!  Areas highlighted orange or yellow in the map should also be preparing for C. tarsalis flight.



The Public Health Agency of Canada posts information related to West Nile Virus in Canada.  The map of clinical cases of West Nile Virus in Canada in 2017 is updated through the summer (screen shot of map below).  The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), as of August 12, 2017, reported eight clinical cases (confirmed or probable) in Ontario and one asymptomatic infection in British Columbia.  All eight cases from ON are currently unclassified and two were travel-related. 






The Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative compiles and posts information related to their disease surveillance for West Nile Virus in birds.  As of August 24, 2017, 1218 birds were examined and 58 tested positive for West Nile virus; three from Saskatchewan, two from Manitoba, 15 from Ontario, and 38 from Quebec.

The Public Health Agency of Canada also monitors and posts updates on the status of WNV in Mosquitoes.  As of August 12, 2017, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan reported positive mosquito pools for West Nile Virus.  


A total of 224 positive mosquito pools have been found: 
  • 172 from Ontario [Brant County (2), Chatham-Kent (3), Durham Region (4), Eastern Ontario (3), Halton Region (15), Hamilton (4), Haliburton-Kwartha-Pine Ridge District (1), Hastings and Prince Edward Countries (7), Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox and Addington (2), Lambton (1), Middlesex-London (3), Niagara Region (7), Ottawa (11), Oxford County (1), Peel (40), Perth District (2), Peterborough County-City (1), Renfrew County and District (2), Simcoe Muskoka District (1), Toronto (31), Waterloo (2), Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph (2), Windsor-Essex County (21), and York Regional (6)];
  • 35 from Manitoba [(Winnipeg (12), Southern (4), Interlake Eastern (5), and Prairie Mountain (12)];
  • 9 from Quebec [Montérégie (6), Laval (1), and Mauricie-centre-du-Québec(2)];
  • 8 from Saskatchewan. 

Weekly Update (August 24, 2016; Wk 17) - Upcoming Meetings and Conferences

Upcoming Meetings and Conferences – The following agricultural insect pest-related meetings and conferences are scheduled for this year:

• September 28-30, 2017:  The Entomological Society of Alberta Annual Meeting will be held at Crowsnest Pass AB and information is available at: https://goo.gl/UN3ZN2 


• October 22-25, 2017:  The Entomological Society of Canada-Entomological Society of Manitoba 2017 Joint Annual Meeting will be held at Winnipeg MB and information is available at: https://goo.gl/6RC6HC


• October 25-27, 2017:  The Western Forum on Pest Management will be held at Winnipeg MB and information is available at: https://goo.gl/Rf4T8G 

• November 5-8, 2017:  The Entomological Society of America meets at Denver CO and information is available at: http://www.entsoc.org/am/fm/index


• TBA:  Refer to the Entomological Society of Saskatchewan’s website for upcoming events.  Information will be posted at: http://www.entsocsask.ca/events.html 


• November 20-23, 2017:  The Canadian Weed Science Society meets at Saskatoon SK and more information is available at http://weedscience.ca/meeting-home/ 


• December 5-7, 2017:  The Canola Meeting & Canola Innovation Day, and the Canola Discovery Forum have united to create the first ever CanolaWeek in Saskatoon SK and more information is available at https://event-wizard.com/CanolaWeek2017/0/welcome/


• January 9-10, 2018:  CropSphere Agricultural Conference will be held at Saskatoon SK.  More information is available at: https://www.cropsphere.com/index.cfm 

• January 16-19, 2018: The Manitoba Ag Days show will be held at Brandon MB. More information will be available at: https://www.agdays.com/


• January 30-February 1, 2018:  FarmTech 2018 will be held at Edmonton AB and information is available at http://farmtechconference.com/


• March 19-22, 2018:  The 9th International IPM Symposium will be held at Baltimore MA and information is available at https://ipmsymposium.org/2018/

• November 11-14, 2018:  The  Joint meeting of the Entomological Society of Canada and Entomological Society of America meets at Vancouver BC and more information will be available at http://www.entsoc.org/event-calendar/entomology-2018


Weekly Update (Aug 24, 2017; Wk 17) - Previous Posts

The following is a list of 2017 Posts - click to review:

Alfalfa Weevil (Week 11)


Bertha armyworm - Week 14

Bertha armyworm - Week 16
Brood X Cicadas


Cabbage seedpod weevil (Week 12)

Canola scouting chart
Cattle dung - Week 16
Cereal leaf beetle
Crickets with your popcorn
Crop protection guides - Week 16
Cutworms

Diamondback moth (Week 16)


Flax scouting chart

Flea beetles

Grasshoppers (Development and Scouting) - Week 10
Grasshoppers (Predicted development) - Week 16

Iceberg reports
Insects as food (Week 14)

Lily leaf beetle

Lygus in canola - Week 16

Monarch migration (Week 10)


Painted lady butterflies (Week 9)

Pea leaf weevil
PMRA Pesticide Label Mobile App
Pre-Harvest Intervals (PHI) - Week 16

Nysius niger (Week 8)


Ticks and Lyme disease

Time of swathing for canola - Week 16

Weather radar

Wheat midge
White grubs in fields (Week 9)
Wildfires (Week 13)

Monday, 21 August 2017

Insect of the Week (August 21) - Brown marmorated stink bug

This week's Insect of the Week is the brown marmorated stink bug. They get their name from the foul odour they release when threatened. Nymphs and adults prefer field corn and soybean, but infestations have been reported on rape, pea, sunflower and cereals in the USA. They have also been known to attack tree fruits, berries, vegetables and many ornamental trees and shrubs. They are not known to be established in the Prairies, but have been found in the BC Southern Interior, Ontario and Quebec. Feeding causes damage to seeds and seed pods, reducing yield.
Brown marmorated stink bug - adult (CC-BY 2.0 Katja Schulz)
👉Have a look at our new Cutworm manual! Downloadable from the Cutworm Corner page!👈

Friday, 18 August 2017

Weekly Update (Aug 17, 2017; Wk 16) - Greetings! Otani, Giffen, Svendsen, Olfert

Greetings!

Please access the Weekly Update for August 17, 2017 (Week 16), as either a series of Posts  or a downloadable PDF.   





Questions or problems accessing the contents of this Weekly Update?  Please e-mail either Dr. Owen Olfert or Jennifer Otani.  Past “Weekly Updates” can be accessed on our Weekly Update page.

Subscribe to the Blog by following these three steps!

Help improve the Blog!

Seeking your input please!  The Prairie Pest Monitoring Network's BLOG has been active for 2 years so completing a CONFIDENTIAL 6-minute survey will help us learn more about who uses it, what information is accessed, and how to continue to improve it next field season.  

The survey is being conducted by Synthesis Agri-Food Network who has been contracted by Western Grains Research Foundation.  For more information concerning the survey of the Blog, please contact Karen Lewis

Weekly Update (Aug 17, 2017; Wk 16) - Weather Synopsis

Weather synopsis – Temperature - This week’s temperatures were warmest in southern Alberta and Manitoba (Fig. 1). The 30-day average temperatures were warmest along the border with USA (Fig. 2).
Figure 1. Average precipitation across the Canadian prairies the past
seven days (August 7-14, 2017).


Figure 2.  Average temperature across the Canadian prairies the
past 30 days (July 14-August 14, 2017).


After a fair bit heat across the prairies (Fig. 3), a few of us woke to cooler temperatures (Fig. 4) this week!

Figure 3.  Highest temperatures the past seven days (August  10-16, 2017) across
the Canadian prairies.
Figure 4.  Lowest temperatures the past seven days (August  10-16, 2017) across
the Canadian prairies.

Precipitation - Seven-day rainfall accumulations were greatest in regions north of the Yellowhead highway (Fig. 5). Total 30-day rainfall accumulations indicate that conditions dryer than normal for most of the prairies, particularly southern and central regions of Alberta (Fig. 6). 
Figure 5. Accumulated precipitation the past seven days (August 7-13, 2017).


Figure 6. Percent of average precipitation across the Canadian prairies the 
past 30 days (July 15-August 13, 2017). 

This growing season (April 1 – August 13, 2017), the percent of average precipitation continues to be below average for most of the prairies (Fig. 7).

Figure 7. Percent of average precipitation across the Canadian prairies for the 
growing season (April 1-August 13, 2017). 



The growing degree day map (GDD) (Base 10ºC, March 1 – August 13, 2017) is below:





The growing degree day map (GDD) (Base 5ºC, March 1 – August 13, 2017) is below:







The maps above are all produced by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.  Growers may wish to bookmark the AAFC Drought Watch Maps for the growing season.

Weekly Update (Aug 17, 2017; Wk 16) - Pre-Harvest Intervals (PHI)

Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI) - Growers with late-season insect pest problems will need to remember to factor in the PHI which is the minimum number of days between a pesticide application and swathing or straight combining of a crop.  

The PHI recommends sufficient time for a pesticide to break down and a PHI-value is both crop- and pesticide-specific.  Adhering to the PHI is important for a number of health-related reasons but also because Canada’s export customers strictly regulate and test for the presence of trace residues of pesticides.

An excellent summary of PHI for various pesticides in their various crops was posted by Saskatchewan Agriculture's Danielle Stephens in 2016 within their Crop Production News.

In 2013, the Canola Council of Canada created and circulated their “Spray to Swath Interval Calculator” which was intended to help canola growers accurately estimate their PHI.  Other PHI are described in your provincial crop protection guides and remember that specific crop x pesticide combinations will mean different PHIs.  More information about PHI and Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) is available on the Canola Council of Canada's website.

Weekly Update (Aug 17, 2017; Wk 16) - Crop protection guides

Crop Protection Guides – If you don’t have a copy of your province’s Crop Protection Guide, please make use of these links to access:
• Saskatchewan's Crop Protection Guide
• Manitoba's Guide to Crop Protection Guide 
• Alberta's Crop Protection or Blue Book 
• Western Committee on Crop Pests Guidelines for the Control of Crop Pests


Recall earlier this spring that Health Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency launched a new mobile app to access pesticide labels registered for use in Canada. The App helps homeowners, farmers, industry, provincial and federal organizations access details for pest control products from a smartphone or tablet.  Download it as either:

Weekly Update (Aug 17, 2017; Wk 16) - Diamondback moth

Diamondback moth (Plutellidae: Plutella xylostella) - Based on Harcourt (1954), this week the DBM model was run with a biofix date of May 21. The following map illustrates that potentially three generations (after the migratory population) may have been completed across most of the prairies. 



REMINDER - Once diamondback moth is present in the area, it is important to monitor individual canola fields for larvae.  Remove the plants in an area measuring 0.1 m² (about 12" square), beat them on to a clean surface and count the number of larvae (Fig. 1) dislodged from the plant. Repeat this procedure at least in five locations in the field to get an accurate count.  The economic threshold for diamondback moth in canola at the advanced pod stage is 20 to 30 larvae/ 0.1  (approximately 2-3 larvae per plant).  Economic thresholds for canola or mustard in the early flowering stage are not available. However, insecticide applications are likely required at larval densities of 10 to 15 larvae/ 0.1  (approximately 1-2 larvae per plant).


Figure 1. Diamondback larva measuring ~8mm long.
Note brown head capsule and forked appearance of prolegs on posterior.


Figure 2. Diamondback moth pupa within silken cocoon.

Biological and monitoring information for DBM is posted by Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural DevelopmentSaskatchewan AgricultureAlberta Agriculture and Forestry, and the Prairie Pest Monitoring Network.  

More information about Diamondback moths can be found by accessing the pages from the new "Field Crop and Forage Pests and their Natural Enemies in Western Canada: Identification and Field Guide".  View ONLY the Diamondback moth page but remember the guide is available as a free downloadable document as both an English-enhanced or French-enhanced version.



Figure 3. Diamondback moth.

Across the prairies, provincial staff coordinate diamondback pheromone trapping during the growing season:

● Low numbers of moths have been reported across Saskatchewan for the 2017 pheromone monitoring.  
● Manitoba Agriculture and Rural Initiatives posted low DBM counts which can be reviewed here.  
● Alberta Agriculture and Forestry has a live 2017 map reporting Diamondback moth pheromone trap interceptions.  A copy of the map (retrieved July 20, 2017) is below for reference.